# Financial informatics and simulation dating

### UZH - Department of Informatics - IfI Summer School on Machine Learning

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### The Informatics of Time and Events - The Informatics of Time and Events - Collège de France

He received his Ph. His research on machine learning and adaptive systems has received awards at several premier conferences and journals. TUE Deep Learning with Py Torch Course Description This course will first provide a general introduction to deep learning and its relation to classical machine learning. We will then look at techniques and concepts specific to the design of large-scale computation-intensive models, and illustrate these notions with examples in the PyTorch framework.

He has published more than 80 papers in peer-reviewed international conferences and journals. His main research interest is machine learning, with a particular focus on computational aspects and small sample learning, and applications in computer vision.

TUE Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing Course Description Sentiment analysis is the task of automatically classifying text into sentiment categories such as positive and negative. Untilstate-of-the-art solutions to this problem relied on shallow learning schemes based on hand-crafted features and linear machine learning models. These approaches have also been recently adopted for many natural language processing NLP tasks, including sentiment analysis, with successful results.

In this tutorial, we use sentiment analysis as a case study for introducing modern neural network architectures for NLP, including word embeddings, convolutional neural networks, and recurrent neural networks. No previous linguistic knowledge is required. Basic understanding of mathematical concepts such as functions, matrices, and derivatives may be helpful but is not essential. He received his PhD degree from the University of Waikato.

Previously, he received two engineering degrees in the fields of computer science and industrial engineering, and a masters degree in computer science, all from the University of Chile. He worked for three years as a research engineer at Yahoo!

His main areas of interest are: His full list of publications is available here: But the year was composed of days, themselves comprised of 24 hours, etc. A fine expression in everyday French illustrates the essence of this dual view: Depending on needs, the same event can be seen as atomic, and therefore indecomposable, or rather as aggregated, then representing the abstraction of a succession of more basic events.

We will juggle between these two visions of an event: The key to correcting this double mechanism will be precise control of the real temporal sequence, which will allow us to ensure that the abstraction of zero time is reasonable in practice for the domain considered.

The question of determinism 49The difference between determinism and non-determinism is important for our systems.

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A system is deterministic if its reactions are always identical in identical situations, and non-deterministic otherwise. But, if the system must always react in the same way to the same inputs, it must not contain internal non-determinism. Conversely, it is important for the transmission of packets on the Internet to be globally non-deterministic, so as to be robust to failures and reconfigurations.

The two concepts are equally relevant, but in different situations. Determinism is mostly required in high-security embedded systems, which must have perfectly predictable behaviour: The dynamic or static side of systems is also important here: It is less so now, because of the generalized change of scale of informatics systems, and many hybrids are appearing.

Modern electronic systems on chips asynchronously and non-deterministically combine locally synchronous and deterministic components, and the distributed control of embedded systems does the same thing by slightly non-deterministically combining locally deterministic software.

But the formalization, implementation, and especially verification of such systems raise considerable problems that are still far from being resolved. They will be studied in the second year of the course. But causality must obey a general rule: Yet it is not essential for it to rain to remain dry with an open umbrella!

This notion of causality is used, for example, to study protein building networks in the cell in structural biology. Formalizing the different kinds of relevant causality remains an open problem of prime interest. They also perfectly illustrate certain crucial questions concerning time. Let us start with the thickness of the instant and the associated abstraction.

FullAdder, the 3 bit adder. Zoom in Original png, 16k 54The adding circuit FullAdder in Figure 3 calculates the sum s and the carry c of the 3 input bits x, y and z. This circuit can be seen in two ways.

From the electrical perspective, the computation is performed through the propagation of voltages in the wires and gates, with delays determined by their technology and their physical placement. The maximum delay between any given input and output is called the critical delay; it is typically a fraction of a nanosecond long for FullAdder. By fixing the inputs, there is certainty that all the outputs remain constant after the critical delay, and that they do have the desired Boolean values.

While intermediary transitions can occur on the way, they have become invisible. The dual vision is the abstract logical vision. The gates are seen as simple Boolean operators; the circuit becomes a system of Boolean equations to solve and the equations are seen as simultaneous, and resolved in an abstract instant without thickness.

The logical model is far simpler to design, to reason with and to optimize, as it allows all Boolean optimizations and verifications. Meanwhile, the functionally equivalent vibratory model precisely implements the thickness of the abstract instant.

Designers talk about logical functions and electronic engineers about wires and transistors, and the key information they exchange is the critical delay. This well-organized cooperation has allowed for the extraordinary improvement of integrated circuits and the development of systems for the physical synthesis of circuits based on high-level specifications. Two main methods exist to do so: In order to add in space, 32 1-bit FullAddern adders can be lined up in parallel, with the wires ci propagating the carries as we used to do in school: This is simple but inefficient, as the critical delay is multiplied by the number of bits.

We can do much better by exchanging time against space. When the receiver receives a message, it compares the time of emission with the time of reception, and deduces its distance from the satellite since the position of satellites and the speed of light are known.

Using several satellites and calculating the intersection of the spheres they determine, one knows where one is. First, since the GPS receiver, unlike satellites, does not contain an atomic clock, it is forced to compute in dimension 4 with at least four satellites to determine both position and time. But the absolute time of Newtonian mechanics does not exist: But note that the most recent clocks like that of David Wineland, Physics Nobel Prize Laureate with Serge Haroche, are so precise that they are able to show how gravity modifies time, simply by separating two identical specimens by a centimetre height!

In a car, the brakes, suspension, and the steering system need to be coordinated, to maintain the attitude when braking in a corner for example. This requires a precise temporal alignment of the different calculators and of the informatics network connecting them. But in order to accelerate the compiling of large-size programs, several computers are often used in parallel. Finally let me mention, as a matter of interest, millisecond-long financial transactions: Multiple and irregular clocks 38In the twentieth century, circuits were sufficiently small and simple to be sequenced by a single clock, distributed everywhere by a superbly geometrical clock tree.

That is no longer the case. These sub-circuits exchange information through first-in first-out buffers or networks on chips, some with a predictable time, others not.

## The Informatics of Time and Events

Finally, asynchronous or elastic circuits function far more dynamically, without a clock at all. I have already mentioned braking in corners. Temporal synchronization is just as crucial to large system simulators, built by coupling local simulators using their own simulation clocks.

Logical time, physical time 41In another vein, we find that two notions of time often compete in daily life. These events can be seen to define a logical time, by their reproducible though irregular repetition in relation to physical time. Their physical precision is not necessarily great, as shown by the etymology of the nice French word tintamarre racket: But this hour where the sun reaches its zenith in the sky is difficult to determine.

When he could really feel it was time, the union leader would take a stone and chink tinter it against the iron of his hoe, called a marre.

When all the other vintners did likewise, they produced a splendid tintamarre! This does not prevent us from working in logical time when designing the circuit, by acting as though time was regular. One of the seminars of the lecture series will present elastic circuits 16a wonderful way of coordinating flexibly logical and physical time.

When programming embedded software, we also often use logical times that are finely correlated to physical time only at the implementation stage, or even during the system integration.

## IfI Summer School 2018 on Machine Learning

Multiform time 44We can go further by calling logical time any quasi-time defined by the repetition of a given event, and discuss it with the same vocabulary and logic that we use for physical time. When walking towards a village, metres, and steps are just as often repeated as seconds. There is no difference between saying that the village is 10 minutes away or saying that it is 10 kilometres, 10, steps 10 kilosteps or 10, heartbeats 10 kilobeats away.

Thus, all time logics together constitute a multiform time. The Esterel programming language, which I will briefly describe further on, was designed to program applications by playing on the idea of multiform time. It can be applied equally to real-time control applications and to the specification and synthesis of multi-clock circuits, for which each clock is seen to define its own logical time.

Modern physics no longer necessarily sees it as continuous on the basic scales, nor even as something which should remain a primitive concept, which is of no concern to us here.

More important is the fact that the notion of dating by using real numbers is not natural in informatics, as real numbers with an arbitrary infinity of decimals are not computable.

We therefore also need discrete scales of time, founded on countable and computable sets of instants and discrete events. In order for our work to remain compatible with regular physics, we can carry on using real numbers to refer to discrete dates. This is what is called timestamping, which is particularly useful in telecommunications and database synchronization. But we can order events only partially, without necessarily defining a relation of precedence between two instants.

In this case, precedence becomes a partial order. This is what is often done in asynchronous distributed systems, where actors do not share a common time and where the transmission of messages can take any time.

Timestamping is then done in logical time.