Western Cape - Wikipedia
The formal cession of the colony to the Britain takes place eight years later in Bay in the eastern Cape to increase the size of the white settler population. This troubled period goes down in official South African history as either .. Major Henry Warden, to set up boundaries between the black and white. Since , the “land question” in South Africa has revolved around the major , the date the act was promulgated, would be excluded from the ambit of the far more significant in determining the nature and extent of black land tenure in .. took place between and in furtherance of apartheid's grand plan;. Africans living in White areas could be forced to move to the locations. African service contracts, and to determine the extent of African beer brewing or trading in the locations. . Assent gained: 14 June ; commencement date not found. .. Act 36 of Alteration of Provincial Boundaries Act, ; Act of .
Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. Sincethe long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". Sincethe Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages.
Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,   while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term " Azania ". History of South Africa Prehistoric archaeology These finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus.
The Land Question in South Africa: 1913 and Beyond
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at leastyears. Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley.Where Are The Asian Borders? (part 1)
They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around The southernmost group was the Xhosa peoplewhose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people.
As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples. In Mpumalanga Provinceseveral stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples. Inthe Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa. Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa.
After 8 Januaryprevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it.
He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot Riverin Maybut on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas Cape of Storms.
South Africa - Wikipedia
Dutch colonisation Main article: Dutch Cape Colony Charles Davidson Bell 's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeckwho founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade. Helena as alternative ports of refuge.
The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives. During the early s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colonywhere they had been subjected to British control.
Land Question in South Africa: and Beyond - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History
The Boers founded the Boer Republics: The discovery of diamonds in and gold in in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration. Once the law was passed, the apartheid government began the mass relocation of black people to poor homelands and to poorly planned and serviced townships … This marked the beginning of socio-economic challenges the country is facing today such as landlessness, poverty and inequality.
In this way, some two-thirds of the country—in the region of 82 million hectares—was reserved for the near-exclusive ownership of white farmers and agricultural companies, while African South Africans were progressively stripped of rights to land, residence, and citizenship outside their putative homelands. But the transition to formal democracy and a constitutionally mandated land reform program has failed to dissolve the spatial legacy of a bifurcated countryside, or to assuage collective memories of dispossession.
For many politicians and commentators, this shortfall means that the land question is far from resolved.
For some it means that the question itself needs reformulating. Land, it is routinely said, is both a material and a symbolic resource, but tracking how these dimensions have interacted and played out over the course of the 20th century, as well as what this history means for contemporary land policy, is a complex undertaking.
Post-apartheid South Africa is not the agrarian country it was inwhen some 80 percent of a population of approximately 6 million was regarded as rural. At the national level, the persistent disparity in aggregated white and black land ownership continues to function as a potent indicator of white privilege and black social and economic marginalization.
To this extent, the land question still demands resolution, if not simple answers. What follows is an overview of this dense history across two distinct but intersecting domains. Its primary focus is the history of land access and ownership sinceand the associated contestations over its distribution, its use, its value, and its political control over time. The first three sections review developments between and mid, this three-part periodization working with significant political events to punctuate an unfolding narrative across a century of agrarian change as follows: The segregation era from to ; 2.
The apartheid era from to ; 3. The post-apartheid era from forward. While often depicted as a relatively simple morality tale—heroic resistance on the part of the colonized versus savage dispossession on the part of the colonizers—more ambiguous themes of accommodation, assimilation, stratification, and innovation thread themselves through this extended encounter as well.
Importantly, however, there were significant differences on the ground, reflecting not only variation in localized histories of colonization but also the influence of different ecologies and local economies. Conquered kingdoms and chiefdoms were not displaced and dispersed … They remained largely intact, although subject to colonial or republican rule. They did, however, signal the emergence of more individualized and exclusive notions of land ownership in sectors of African society.
Along with this went new configurations of social status and new calculations about land itself as a commodity. At the same time, many white farming households were struggling to adapt to a more commercially oriented agricultural regime.
The passage into law of the Land Act on June 19,was certainly a politically significant assertion of white power in the new Union, but it was not a decisive moment in the history of black dispossession. That had already occurred. The areas that were scheduled excluded more than 1. In recognition that the initial allocation was inadequate, the act made provision for a Natives Land Commission to investigate additional land to add to the schedule.
In the s and s, social historians and radical economists differed on whose interests the Land Act was designed to serve—those of white farmers wishing to reduce black competition around land, labor, and markets or those of white mining bosses wanting to preserve the African reserves as labor reservoirs for the migrant labor system.
The evidence favors the former position, though ultimately both groups benefited. The promulgation of the act had devastating consequences for some African sharecropper households, particularly in parts of the Free State. The act was not applicable in the Cape Province because it conflicted with the terms under which that province had entered the union. However, at this stage, nationalists sought coexistence, not overt confrontation, with white society.
The Native Land and Trust Act of The Natives Land Commission established through the Land Act soon ran into fierce opposition on the part of white landowners who were unwilling to sacrifice their own farms to advance the general principle of segregation that they endorsed—a response which was to dog state land acquisition plans for the reserves throughout the 20th century.
When it finally reported inthe commission recommended adding a little over 7 million hectares to the scheduled areas across the four provinces. It was thus only two decades later, inwhen a white coalition government under Afrikaner nationalist General Hertzog was in office, that the Native Trust and Land Act Act 18 was passed. This approved the addition of 6.