Evolution as fact and theory - Wikipedia
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution - A theory in crisis in light of the tremendous advances Natural selection acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous. Many scientists and philosophers of science have described evolution as fact and theory, . Natural selection is only one of several mechanisms in the theory of . the sequence of faunas and floras in precisely dated geological strata?. Absolute dating or even be decayed a isotope that had percent of samples in minutes! For intraoffice communication trending Why is about years, meaning that Chemistry natural selection favor homosexuality answers Best Answer nbsp.
Darwin was so embarrassed by the ridicule he received that the swimming-bear passage was removed from later editions of the book. Scientists now know that Darwin had the right idea but the wrong animal.
BBC - Earth - How do we know that evolution is really happening?
Instead of looking at bears, he should have instead been looking at cows and hippopotamuses. The story of the origin of whales is one of evolution's most fascinating tales and one of the best examples scientists have of natural selection. The last shore-dwelling ancestor of modern whales was Sinonyx, top left, a hyena-like animal.
Over 60 million years, several transitional forms evolved: NOAA Natural selection To understand the origin of whales, it's necessary to have a basic understanding of how natural selection works. Natural selection can change a species in small ways, causing a population to change color or size over the course of several generations.
This is called "microevolution. Given enough time and enough accumulated changes, natural selection can create entirely new species, known as "macroevolution.
Take the example of whales — using evolution as their guide and knowing how natural selection works, biologists knew that the transition of early whales from land to water occurred in a series of predictable steps. The evolution of the blowhole, for example, might have happened in the following way: Random genetic changes resulted in at least one whale having its nostrils placed farther back on its head.
Those animals with this adaptation would have been better suited to a marine lifestyle, since they would not have had to completely surface to breathe. Such animals would have been more successful and had more offspring. In later generations, more genetic changes occurred, moving the nose farther back on the head. Other body parts of early whales also changed. Front legs became flippers. Their bodies became more streamlined and they developed tail flukes to better propel themselves through water.
Darwin also described a form of natural selection that depends on an organism's success at attracting a mate, a process known as sexual selection. The colorful plumage of peacocks and the antlers of male deer are both examples of traits that evolved under this type of selection.
But Darwin wasn't the first or only scientist to develop a theory of evolution. The French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck came up with the idea that an organism could pass on traits to its offspring, though he was wrong about some of the details. Around the same time as Darwin, British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace independently came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Modern understanding Darwin didn't know anything about genetics, Pobiner said. The incorporation of genetics and Darwin's theory is known as "modern evolutionary synthesis. Such changes are called mutations.
How does radioactive dating methods contribute to the study of evolution?
Mutations can be caused by random errors in DNA replication or repair, or by chemical or radiation damage. Most times, mutations are either harmful or neutral, but in rare instances, a mutation might prove beneficial to the organism. If so, it will become more prevalent in the next generation and spread throughout the population. In this way, natural selection guides the evolutionary process, preserving and adding up the beneficial mutations and rejecting the bad ones. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.
Facts do not go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them. Einstein 's theory of gravitation replaced Newton 's, but apples did not suspend themselves in mid-air, pending the outcome. And humans evolved from apelike ancestors whether they did so by Darwin's proposed mechanism or by some other, yet to be discovered. Evolution, in this context, is both a fact and a theory. It is an incontrovertible fact that organisms have changed, or evolved, during the history of life on Earth.
And biologists have identified and investigated mechanisms that can explain the major patterns of change.
Ryan Gregory notes, "biologists rarely make reference to 'the theory of evolution,' referring instead simply to 'evolution' i. That evolution is a theory in the proper scientific sense means that there is both a fact of evolution to be explained and a well-supported mechanistic framework to account for it. Richard Lewontin wrote, "It is time for students of the evolutionary process, especially those who have been misquoted and used by the creationists, to state clearly that evolution is fact, not theory.
Futuyma writes in Evolutionary Biology"The statement that organisms have descended with modifications from common ancestors—the historical reality of evolution—is not a theory. It is a fact, as fully as the fact of the earth's revolution about the sun. It is a fact that we are cousins of gorillas, kangaroos, starfish, and bacteria. Evolution is as much a fact as the heat of the sun. It is not a theory, and for pity's sake, let's stop confusing the philosophically naive by calling it so.
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
Evolution is a fact. The term theory is no longer appropriate except when referring to the various models that attempt to explain how life evolves Fitzhugh  writes that scientists must be cautious to "carefully and correctly" describe the nature of scientific investigation at a time when evolutionary biology is under attack from creationists and proponents of intelligent design.
Fitzhugh writes that while facts are states of being in nature, theories represent efforts to connect those states of being by causal relationships: Theories are concepts stating cause—effect relations.
Regardless of one's certainty as to the utility of a theory to provide understanding, it would be epistemically incorrect to assert any theory as also being a fact, given that theories are not objects to be discerned by their state of being.
He nevertheless contends that referring to evolution as a "fact" is technically incorrect and distracts from the primary "goal of science, which is to continually acquire causal understanding through the critical evaluation of our theories and hypotheses. Robertson writing for National Science Teachers Association writes, "I have heard too many scientists claim that evolution is a fact, often in retort to the claim that it is just a theory.
Rather than claiming so, I think scientists would be better served to agree that evolution is a theory and then proceed to explain what a theory is -- a coherent explanation that undergoes constant testing and often revision over a period of time.
To explain means to identify a mechanism that causes evolution and to demonstrate the consequences of its operation. These consequences are then the general laws of evolution, of which any given system or organism is a particular outcome.
Graham BellSelection: The Mechanism of Evolution  "Proof" of a theory has different meanings in science. Proof exists in formal sciencessuch as a mathematical proof where symbolic expressions can represent infinite sets and scientific laws having precise definitions and outcomes of the terms.
- What is Darwin's Theory of Evolution?
- How do we know that evolution is really happening?
- Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
Proof has other meanings as it descends from its Latin roots provable, probable, probare L.