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On the other hand, the Bakkhali River opens into this channel, which brings much of the domestic, ag-ricultural and industrial wastes. A good number of fishing trawler and mechanized boat and speed boats move through this channel every day. Mo-reover, many passenger boats from different pla-ces come to the jetty along the Maheshkhali channel.
Therefore, oil spill and unused fuel from these vehicles finally goes into the water and continuously polluted the water which might re-sult in increasing trace metals in the water co-lumn of the Maheshkhali Channel. Some me-tals, such as Cd and Pb, have long been known to accumulate within the aquatic food chain. Since Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are widely distributed in the coastal environment, both from natural geologi-cal processes and anthropogenic activities. Mus-sels are well known to accumulate a wide range of contaminants in their soft tissues Goldberg et al.
The intertidal areas are the natural ha-bitats of marine mussels, but they are usually clo-se to estuaries. Therefore, the chance of exposure to several contaminants from the land-based acti-vities is high through the riverine system as well as sea-based sources. Marine mussels provide a cheap source of protein for human consumption. From the nutritional point of view, the mussel is an important food source for supplying essential trace metals e.
Ca, Fe and certain vitamins such as niacin, thia-mine and riboflavin Cheong and Lee, From the toxicological point of view, excessive consumption of metal-contaminated seafood may cause toxicity to humans.
Since trace metals are inorganic chemicals that are non-biodegradable, cannot be metabolized and will not break down into harmless forms Kromhout et al. They can simply accumulate through time, be-coming less and more of a toxic threat as their concentrations increase. Levels of metals above the permissible limits would certainly create a notorious food image to the consumers.
However, the major objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of trace metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soft tissues of P.
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Four sampling sites were selected at Guruk Ghata area considering the abundance of green mussel P. The samples were collected from January to Feb-ruary During the sampling period water temperature were recorded ranged from Therefore, trace metal bio-monitoring needs to conform to certain required characteristics, not least being metal accumulators.
Sampling was conducted from a rented boat with local boatman to assist collecting green mussel P. Green mussels were randomly collected from each sampling sites at the low tide. Mussel sam-ples were cleaned to rid of debris sessile flora and fauna with seawater in sampling area. Total 36 mussels were collected and kept cool in an ice-box in the field.
Sample preparation and analysis In the laboratory, the whole soft parts of the mussel were separated carefully from the shell to avoid metal contamination.
The soft parts of each mussel were homogenized in a glass blender with a stainless steel cutter and divided into two parts. One part was used for determine the moisture content by drying at C for 48 hours or until a constant weight was obtained to convert wet weight to dry weight and the other part was used for trace metal analysis by acid digestion.
Extraction of trace metals from mussels For the digestion of mussel samples, some Samp-le solutions were analyzed for trace metals fol-lowing flameless atomic absorption spectropho-tometer Hitachi Z Preparation of working solutions Dilute the standard solutions to a concentra-tion about ten times that which was determined in samples Table 1.
Dispense measured aliquots of solution say, 2, 6, 8 and 10 into small volumet-ric flasks 25 ml in order to cover the working range for AAS, using a pipette and clean volu-metric flask. The wavelengths of the most sensitive lines from the hollow cathode lamps HCL were Recovery percentage of analysis About 2 g homogenized dry meat of green mussels were divided in to two parts.
The other parts of sample 1 g dry weight were not added with Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu. Both of sample parts were digested in the process of trace metals ex-traction in green mussel and the filtrate solutions. Results and Discussion The trace metal concentrations in the soft tis-sue of P.
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The mean concentrations ranged from The variation of mean concentrations of trace metals among the stations are shown in Figure 2. The variation of mean concentrations of the trace metals in P. The guideline on trace metals for food safety set by different countries are presented in Table 4.
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In comparison with the permissible limit set by were measured by flame atomic absorption spec-trophotometer Hitachi Z the model SSC for Zn, Cu and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer Hitachi Z for Cd and Pb. The concentrations of each trace metal in both samples were compared to determine the percent recovery of the analysis. Guidelines on trace metal concentrations for the food safety set by different countries dry weight basis Detection limits and accuracy Detection limits for a number of common el-ements were determined by flame atomic ab-sorption and compared them with those obtained with other atomic absorption methods Table 2.
Detection limits for the selected trace elements by Atomic Spectroscopy Data analysis All calculations were based on dry weight of tissue. The mean concentrations of Zn Although the mean concentration of Cu 7. The potential ha-zards of metals transferred to humans are pro-bably dependent on the amount g weight of mussels consumed by an individual.Yevadu 3 (Agnyaathavaasi) 2018 New Released Hindi Dubbed Full Movie - Pawan Kalyan, Keerthy Suresh
The effects of Pb on the central nervous system are generally seen in children and acute effects of Pb might ca-use coma and death to the affected person Hut-ton, If the consumer continue to consume this mussel for 7 days, then they would consume Similarly, if an adult consumes approximately 10 g of mussels per day, then the person who consumes mussels collected from Maheshkhali channel would intake 0.
If the consumers continue to take the mussel for 7 consecutive days, then they would intake 4.
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Again, this consumption level is also lower than the recommended limit for the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Cd 6. The elimination rate of Cd is very slow an average 2. Moreover, prolon-ged excessive Cd ingestion would cause Cd ac-cumulation inside the human body Filov et al. The acute toxic symptoms of higher con-centration of Cd ingestion are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, abdominal pain, muscular ache, salivation and shock Patnaik, The Australian Mesothelioma Registry, managed by the Cancer Institute of New South Wales, keeps a register of mesothelioma patients, collects pertinent exposure information and distributes annual reports about its findings.
Experts report that from the s to the s, the country had the highest per capita rate of asbestos use in the world.
The Australian Mesothelioma Register monitors asbestos exposure among trades, in addition to mesothelioma incidence. They say the occupations with the highest exposure risk include asbestos mining and jobs that produce a lot of dust such as sawing, sanding, drilling, grinding or handling asbestos-contaminated materials. Specific high-risk jobs include boiler workers, power plant workers, carpenters, railway workers and naval workers.
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In some cases, it was used long after it was banned in other countries. For example, amosite brown asbestos use continued well into the s and was found in products such as cement board. In fact, asbestos was still used in friction materials and gasket products in the nation as recently as December Mining Parts of Australia were asbestos mining hubs. Crocidolite blue asbestos, one of the most toxic types of asbestos, was mined in the Western Australia town of Wittenoom from the s until when the Wittenoom mine was shut down.
Australia finally started regulating asbestos products in the late s. The use of crocidolite blue asbestos was banned inwhile the use of amosite brown asbestos continued until the mids. The ban on chrysotile white asbestos finally came about 20 years later, at the end of